Progress of Reform in
Luther's mysterious disappearance excited
consternation throughout all Germany. Inquiries concerning him were heard everywhere. The
wildest rumors were circulated, and many believed that he had been murdered. There was
great lamentation, not only by his avowed friends, but by thousands who had not openly
taken their stand with the Reformation. Many bound themselves by a solemn oath to avenge
The Romish leaders saw with terror to what a
pitch had risen the feeling against them. Though at first exultant at the supposed death
of Luther, they soon desired to hide from the wrath of the people. His enemies had not
been so troubled by his most daring acts while among them as they were at his removal.
Those who in their rage had sought to destroy the bold Reformer were filled with fear now
that he had become a helpless captive. "The only remaining way of saving
ourselves," said one, "is to light torches, and hunt for Luther through the
whole world, to restore him to the nation that is calling for him."--D'Aubigne, b. 9,
ch. 1. The edict of the emperor seemed to fall powerless. The papal legates were filled
with indignation as they saw that it commanded far less attention than did the fate of
The tidings that he was safe, though a prisoner,
calmed the fears of the people, while it still further aroused their enthusiasm in his
favor. His writings were read with greater eagerness than ever before. Increasing numbers
joined the cause of the heroic man who had, at such fearful odds, defended the word of
God. The Reformation was constantly gaining in strength. The seed which Luther had sown
sprang up everywhere. His absence accomplished a work which his presence would have failed
to do. Other laborers felt a new responsibility, now that their great leader was removed.
With new faith and earnestness they pressed forward to do all in their power, that the
work so nobly begun might not be hindered.
But Satan was not idle. He now attempted what he
has attempted in every other reformatory movement--to deceive and destroy the people by
palming off upon them a counterfeit in place of the true work. As there were false christs
in the first century of the Christian church, so there arose false prophets in the
A few men, deeply affected by the excitement in
the religious world, imagined themselves to have received special revelations from Heaven,
and claimed to have been divinely commissioned to carry forward to its completion the
Reformation which, they declared, had been but feebly begun by Luther. In truth, they were
undoing the very work which he had accomplished. They rejected the great principle which
was the very foundation of the Reformation--that the word of God is the all-sufficient
rule of faith and practice; and for that unerring guide they substituted the changeable,
uncertain standard of their own feelings and impressions. By this act of setting aside the
great detector of error and falsehood the way was opened for Satan to control minds as
best pleased himself.
One of these prophets claimed to have been
instructed by the angel Gabriel. A student who united with him forsook his studies,
declaring that he had been endowed by God Himself with wisdom to expound His word. Others
who were naturally inclined to fanaticism united with them. The proceedings of these
enthusiasts created no little excitement.
The preaching of Luther had aroused the people
everywhere to feel the necessity of reform, and now some really honest persons were misled
by the pretensions of the new prophets.
The leaders of the movement proceeded to
Wittenberg and urged their claims upon Melanchthon and his colaborers. Said they: "We
are sent by God to instruct the people. We have held familiar conversations with the Lord;
we know what will happen; in a word, we are apostles and prophets, and appeal to Dr.
Luther."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 7.
The Reformers were astonished and perplexed. This
was such an element as they had never before encountered, and they knew not what course to
pursue. Said Melanchthon: "There are indeed extraordinary spirits in these men; but
what spirits? . . . On the one hand, let us beware of quenching the Spirit of God, and on
the other, of being led astray by the spirit of Satan."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 7.
The fruit of the new teaching soon became
apparent. The people were led to neglect the Bible or to cast it wholly aside. The schools
were thrown into confusion. Students, spurning all restraint, abandoned their studies and
withdrew from the university. The men who thought themselves competent to revive and
control the work of the Reformation succeeded only in bringing it to the verge of ruin.
The Romanists now regained their confidence and exclaimed exultingly: "One last
struggle, and all will be ours."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 7.
Luther at the Wartburg, hearing of what had
occurred, said with deep concern: "I always expected that Satan would send us this
plague."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 7. He perceived the true character of those pretended
prophets and saw the danger that threatened the cause of truth. The opposition of the pope
and the emperor had not caused him so great perplexity and distress as he now experienced.
From the professed friends of the Reformation had risen its worst enemies. The very truths
which had brought him so great joy and consolation were being employed to stir up strife
and create confusion in the church.
In the work of reform, Luther had been urged
forward by the Spirit of God, and had been carried beyond himself. He had not purposed to
take such positions as he did, or to make so radical changes. He had been but the
instrument in the hand of Infinite Power. Yet he often trembled for the result of his
work. He had once said: "If I knew that my doctrine injured one man, one single man,
however lowly and obscure,--which it cannot, for it is the gospel itself,-- I would rather
die ten times than not retract it."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 7.
And now Wittenberg itself, the very center of the
Reformation, was fast falling under the power of fanaticism and lawlessness. This terrible
condition had not resulted from the teachings of Luther; but throughout Germany his
enemies were charging it upon him. In bitterness of soul he sometimes asked: "Can
such, then, be the end of this great work of the Reformation?"--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 7.
Again, as he wrestled with God in prayer, peace flowed into his heart. "The work is
not mine, but Thine own," he said; "Thou wilt not suffer it to be corrupted by
superstition or fanaticism." But the thought of remaining longer from the conflict in
such a crisis, became insupportable. He determined to return to Wittenberg.
Without delay he set out on his perilous journey.
He was under the ban of the empire. Enemies were at liberty to take his life; friends were
forbidden to aid or shelter him. The imperial government was adopting the most stringent
measures against his adherents. But he saw that the work of the gospel was imperiled, and
in the name of the Lord he went out fearlessly to battle for the truth.
In a letter to the elector, after stating his
purpose to leave the Wartburg, Luther said: "Be it known to your highness that I am
going to Wittenberg under a protection far higher than that of princes and electors. I
think not of soliciting your highness's support, and far from desiring your protection,
I would rather protect you myself. If I knew that
your highness could or would protect me, I would not go to Wittenberg at all. There is no
sword that can further this cause. God alone must do everything, without the help or
concurrence of man. He who has the greatest faith is he who is most able to
protect."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 8.
In a second letter, written on the way to
Wittenberg, Luther added: "I am ready to incur the displeasure of your highness and
the anger of the whole world. Are not the Wittenbergers my sheep? Has not God entrusted
them to me? And ought I not, if necessary, to expose myself to death for their sakes?
Besides, I fear to see a terrible outbreak in Germany, by which God will punish our
nation."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 7.
With great caution and humility, yet with
decision and firmness, he entered upon his work. "By the word," said he,
"must we overthrow and destroy what has been set up by violence. I will not make use
of force against the superstitious and unbelieving. . . . No one must be constrained.
Liberty is the very essence of faith."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 8.
It was soon noised through Wittenberg that Luther
had returned and that he was to preach. The people flocked from all directions, and the
church was filled to overflowing. Ascending the pulpit, he with great wisdom and
gentleness instructed, exhorted, and reproved. Touching the course of some who had
resorted to violent measures in abolishing the mass, he said:
"The mass is a bad thing; God is opposed to
it; it ought to be abolished; and I would that throughout the whole world it were replaced
by the supper of the gospel. But let no one be torn from it by force. We must leave the
matter in God's hands. His word must act, and not we. And why so? you will ask. Because I
do not hold men's hearts in my hand, as the potter holds the clay. We have a right to
speak: we have not the right to act. Let us preach; the rest belongs unto God. Were I to
employ force, what should I gain? Grimace, formality, apings, human ordinances, and
hypocrisy. . . . But there would be no sincerity of heart, nor faith, nor charity. Where these
three are wanting, all is wanting, and I would not give a pear stalk for such a result. .
. . God does more by His word alone than you and I and all the world by our united
strength. God lays hold upon the heart; and when the heart is taken, all is won. . . .
"I will preach, discuss, and write; but I
will constrain none, for faith is a voluntary act. See what I have done. I stood up
against the pope, indulgences, and papists, but without violence or tumult. I put forward
God's word; I preached and wrote--this was all I did. And yet while I was asleep, . . .
the word that I had preached overthrew popery, so that neither prince nor emperor has done
it so much harm. And yet I did nothing; the word alone did all. If I had wished to appeal
to force, the whole of Germany would perhaps have been deluged with blood. But what would
have been the result? Ruin and desolation both to body and soul. I therefore kept quiet,
and left the word to run through the world alone."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 8.
Day after day, for a whole week, Luther continued
to preach to eager crowds. The word of God broke the spell of fanatical excitement. The
power of the gospel brought back the misguided people into the way of truth.
Luther had no desire to encounter the fanatics
whose course had been productive of so great evil. He knew them to be men of unsound
judgment and undisciplined passions, who, while claiming to be specially illuminated from
heaven, would not endure the slightest contradiction or even the kindest reproof or
counsel. Arrogating to themselves supreme authority, they required everyone, without a
question, to acknowledge their claims. But, as they demanded an interview with him, he
consented to meet them; and so successfully did he expose their pretensions that the
impostors at once departed from Wittenberg.
The fanaticism was checked for a time; but
several years later it broke out with greater violence and more terrible results. Said
Luther, concerning the leaders in this movement: "To them the Holy Scriptures were but a dead
letter, and they all began to cry, 'The Spirit! the Spirit!' But most assuredly I will not
follow where their spirit leads them. May God of His mercy preserve me from a church in
which there are none but saints. I desire to dwell with the humble, the feeble, the sick,
who know and feel their sins, and who groan and cry continually to God from the bottom of
their hearts to obtain His consolation and support."--Ibid., b. 10, ch. 10.
Thomas Munzer, the most active of the fanatics,
was a man of considerable ability, which, rightly directed, would have enabled him to do
good; but he had not learned the first principles of true religion. "He was possessed
with a desire of reforming the world, and forgot, as all enthusiasts do, that the
reformation should begin with himself."--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 8. He was ambitious to
obtain position and influence, and was unwilling to be second, even to Luther. He declared
that the Reformers, in substituting the authority of Scripture for that of the pope, were
only establishing a different form of popery. He himself, he claimed, had been divinely
commissioned to introduce the true reform. "He who possesses this spirit," said
Munzer, "possesses the true faith, although he should never see the Scriptures in his
life."--Ibid., b. 10, ch. 10.
The fanatical teachers gave themselves up to be
governed by impressions, regarding every thought and impulse as the voice of God;
consequently they went to great extremes. Some even burned their Bibles, exclaiming:
"The letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life." Munzer's teaching appealed to
men's desire for the marvelous, while it gratified their pride by virtually placing human
ideas and opinions above the word of God. His doctrines were received by thousands. He
soon denounced all order in public worship, and declared that to obey princes was to
attempt to serve both God and Belial.
The minds of the people, already beginning to
throw off the yoke of the papacy, were also becoming impatient under the restraints of
civil authority. Munzer's revolutionary teachings, claiming divine sanction, led them to
break away from all control and give the rein to their prejudices and passions. The most
terrible scenes of sedition and strife followed, and the fields of Germany were drenched
The agony of soul which Luther had so long before
experienced at Erfurt now pressed upon him with redoubled power as he saw the results of
fanaticism charged upon the Reformation. The papist princes declared--and many were ready
to credit the statement--that the rebellion was the legitimate fruit of Luther's
doctrines. Although this charge was without the slightest foundation, it could not but
cause the Reformer great distress. That the cause of truth should be thus disgraced by
being ranked with the basest fanaticism, seemed more than he could endure. On the other
hand, the leaders in the revolt hated Luther because he had not only opposed their
doctrines and denied their claims to divine inspiration, but had pronounced them rebels
against the civil authority. In retaliation they denounced him as a base pretender. He
seemed to have brought upon himself the enmity of both princes and people.
The Romanists exulted, expecting to witness the
speedy downfall of the Reformation; and they blamed Luther, even for the errors which he
had been most earnestly endeavoring to correct. The fanatical party, by falsely claiming
to have been treated with great injustice, succeeded in gaining the sympathies of a large
class of the people, and, as is often the case with those who take the wrong side, they
came to be regarded as martyrs. Thus the ones who were exerting every energy in opposition
to the Reformation were pitied and lauded as the victims of cruelty and oppression. This
was the work of Satan, prompted by the same spirit of rebellion which was first manifested
Satan is constantly seeking to deceive men and
lead them to call sin righteousness, and righteousness sin. How successful has been his
work! How often censure and reproach are cast upon God's faithful servants because they
will stand fearlessly in defense of the truth!
Men who are but agents of Satan are praised and flattered, and even looked upon as
martyrs, while those who should be respected and sustained for their fidelity to God, are
left to stand alone, under suspicion and distrust.
Counterfeit holiness, spurious sanctification, is
still doing its work of deception. Under various forms it exhibits the same spirit as in
the days of Luther, diverting minds from the Scriptures and leading men to follow their
own feelings and impressions rather than to yield obedience to the law of God. This is one
of Satan's most successful devices to cast reproach upon purity and truth.
Fearlessly did Luther defend the gospel from the
attacks which came from every quarter. The word of God proved itself a weapon mighty in
every conflict. With that word he warred against the usurped authority of the pope, and
the rationalistic philosophy of the schoolmen, while he stood firm as a rock against the
fanaticism that sought to ally itself with the Reformation.
Each of these opposing elements was in its own
way setting aside the Holy Scriptures and exalting human wisdom as the source of religious
truth and knowledge. Rationalism idolizes reason and makes this the criterion for
religion. Romanism, claiming for her sovereign pontiff an inspiration descended in
unbroken line from the apostles, and unchangeable through all time, gives ample
opportunity for every species of extravagance and corruption to be concealed under the
sanctity of the apostolic commission. The inspiration claimed by Munzer and his associates
proceeded from no higher source than the vagaries of the imagination, and its influence
was subversive of all authority, human or divine. True Christianity receives the word of
God as the great treasure house of inspired truth and the test of all inspiration.
Upon his return from the Wartburg, Luther
completed his translation of the New Testament, and the gospel was soon after given to the
people of Germany in their own language. This translation was received with
great joy by all who loved the truth; but it was scornfully rejected by those who chose
human traditions and the commandments of men.
The priests were alarmed at the thought that the
common people would now be able to discuss with them the precepts of God's word, and that
their own ignorance would thus be exposed. The weapons of their carnal reasoning were
powerless against the sword of the Spirit. Rome summoned all her authority to prevent the
circulation of the Scriptures; but decrees, anathemas, and tortures were alike in vain.
The more she condemned and prohibited the Bible, the greater was the anxiety of the people
to know what it really taught. All who could read were eager to study the word of God for
themselves. They carried it about with them, and read and reread, and could not be
satisfied until they had committed large portions to memory. Seeing the favor with which
the New Testament was received, Luther immediately began the translation of the Old, and
published it in parts as fast as completed.
Luther's writings were welcomed alike in city and
in hamlet. "What Luther and his friends composed, others circulated. Monks, convinced
of the unlawfulness of monastic obligations, desirous of exchanging a long life of
slothfulness for one of active exertion, but too ignorant to proclaim the word of God,
traveled through the provinces, visiting hamlets and cottages, where they sold the books
of Luther and his friends. Germany soon swarmed with these bold colporteurs."
--Ibid., b. 9, ch. 11.
These writings were studied with deep interest by
rich and poor, the learned and the ignorant. At night the teachers of the village schools
read them aloud to little groups gathered at the fireside. With every effort some souls
would be convicted of the truth and, receiving the word with gladness, would in their turn
tell the good news to others.
The words of Inspiration were verified: "The
entrance of Thy words giveth light; it giveth understanding unto the simple." Psalm
119:130. The study of the Scriptures was working a mighty change in the minds and hearts
of the people. The papal rule had placed upon its subjects an iron yoke which held them in
ignorance and degradation. A superstitious observance of forms had been scrupulously
maintained; but in all their service the heart and intellect had had little part. The
preaching of Luther, setting forth the plain truths of God's word, and then the word
itself, placed in the hands of the common people, had aroused their dormant powers, not
only purifying and ennobling the spiritual nature, but imparting new strength and vigor to
Persons of all ranks were to be seen with the
Bible in their hands, defending the doctrines of the Reformation. The papists who had left
the study of the Scriptures to the priests and monks now called upon them to come forward
and refute the new teachings. But, ignorant alike of the Scriptures and of the power of
God, priests and friars were totally defeated by those whom they had denounced as
unlearned and heretical. "Unhappily," said a Catholic writer, "Luther had
persuaded his followers to put no faith in any other oracle than the Holy
Scriptures."--D'Aubigne, b. 9, ch. 11. Crowds would gather to hear the truth
advocated by men of little education, and even discussed by them with learned and eloquent
theologians. The shameful ignorance of these great men was made apparent as their
arguments were met by the simple teachings of God's word. Laborers, soldiers, women, and
even children, were better acquainted with the Bible teachings than were the priests and
The contrast between the disciples of the gospel
and the upholders of popish superstition was no less manifest in the ranks of scholars
than among the common people. "Opposed to the old champions of the hierarchy, who had
neglected the study of languages and the cultivation of
literature, . . . were generous-minded youth, devoted to study, investigating Scripture,
and familiarizing themselves with the masterpieces of antiquity. Possessing an active
mind, an elevated soul, and intrepid heart, these young men soon acquired such knowledge
that for a long period none could compete with them. . . . Accordingly, when these
youthful defenders of the Reformation met the Romish doctors in any assembly, they
attacked them with such ease and confidence that these ignorant men hesitated, became
embarrassed, and fell into a contempt merited in the eyes of all."--Ibid., b. 9,
As the Romish clergy saw their congregations
diminishing, they invoked the aid of the magistrates, and by every means in their power
endeavored to bring back their hearers. But the people had found in the new teachings that
which supplied the wants of their souls, and they turned away from those who had so long
fed them with the worthless husks of superstitious rites and human traditions.
When persecution was kindled against the teachers
of the truth, they gave heed to the words of Christ: "When they persecute you in this
city, flee ye into another." Matthew 10:23. The light penetrated everywhere. The
fugitives would find somewhere a hospitable door opened to them, and there abiding, they
would preach Christ, sometimes in the church, or, if denied that privilege, in private
houses or in the open air. Wherever they could obtain a hearing was a consecrated temple.
The truth, proclaimed with such energy and assurance, spread with irresistible power.
In vain both ecclesiastical and civil authorities
were invoked to crush the heresy. In vain they resorted to imprisonment, torture, fire,
and sword. Thousands of believers sealed their faith with their blood, and yet the work
went on. Persecution served only to extend the truth, and the fanaticism which Satan
endeavored to unite with it resulted in making more clear the contrast between the work of
Satan and the work of God.
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